You will find an outline and introduction to Jeremiah here.
Here is a from the Book of Common Worship to use before reading.
Blessed Lord, who caused all holy scriptures to be written for our learning: Grant us so to hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest them, that we may embrace and ever hold fast the blessed hope of everlasting life, which you have given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
An Outline of Jeremiah (based on Overholt)
I. 1:1-25:38 Confronting the People with Words and Deeds Chapters 21-24:10 are the last part of the first cycle of oracles. Zedekiah was the last of Judah’s kings reigning from 597 BCE (the first deportation) until 586 (the final fall of Jerusalem).
P. 21:1-23:8 The Fate of Kings and of the Monarchy: There is a common subject (kings) and a common theme (justice and righteousness) in these chapters. Zedekiah, the last king is addressed first. Then the other kings in these chapters are addressed chronologically. Why do you think that is?
21:1-10 As we will see in later chapters, Zedekiah sent envoys to Jeremiah more than once, but always received the same reply. (see chapters 37-38). According to 2 Kings 25:4-7 and Jeremiah 39:4-7 Zedekiah does not die in the war but is captured and lead into captivity blinded and humiliated and later dies in captivity.Notice in these verses there is no description or discussion about why the nation will fall.
21:11-22:9 Oracles against the king: “House” is a reference to the palace. Gilead was known for its cattle industry and trade in medicinal herbs. This is a general condemnation of the kings. Notice how similar each set of condemnations is. The first is in poetic form, the second in prose. What are the other differences between them?
22:10-30 Here are oracles against, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, all kings of Judah. Verse 11, Shallum was the personal name of King Jehoahaz. Verse 14, windows, cedar, and vermilion were signs of royalty. Verses 22-23, Some think these verses refer to Lebanon, others think that that these verses refer to lamentations that will arise from all over about the fate of Jerusalem. Verses 24-30 An oracle against Jehoiachin called Coniah here.
23:1-8 contain a messianic oracle. Kings were sometimes referred to as shepherds and the people a flock. Previous kings/shepherds have failed but God will raise up a new shepherd.
Q. 23:9-40 Against the Prophets: The first verse, 9, appears to be about Jeremiah’s emotional state. Why would he be upset? Verses 16-22 concern false prophets. Verse 33 contains a word play as “the burden of the Lord” was a way to describe an oracle.
R.24:1-10 A Vision of Figs: Those who remained behind in Palestine (and Egypt) assumed they were the favored and that those deported were experiencing God’s wrath. But the exiles are the ones to return and become the faithful nation. Recall our reading last year of the historical books and the conflicts between those who remained on the land and the returning exiles.
S. 25:1-14 Confronting the People : A Summary: This is the conclusion of the first cycle. This was written after Nebuchadnezzar’s victory over Neco of Egypt in June, 605 BCE. The reference to this book in verse 13 refers to chapters 1-25. The reference to 70 years seems to be symbolic of a long time ( a generation) rather than historically accurate dating.
T. 25:15-38 God’s Wrath Against the Nations: The nations are listed by nearness to Judah, from closest to farthest away. The cup is a symbol of God’s judgment. Remember that shepherds are a reference to kings. There are no accusations in this section.Verse 30 onward is reminiscent of Amos 1:2.
Here are several good sources to aid your reading.
Anderson, Bernhard W., Katheryn Pfister Darr, Understanding the Old Testament Abridged fourth Edition. (Upper Saddle River,New Jersey: Prentice Hall) 1998.
The New Interpreter’s Bible, Vol 7, Keck, Leander E. ed. (Nashville: Abingdon Press) 2001.
Hutton, Rodney R. “Jeremiah” in The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha: New Revised Standard Version.Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Perkins, Pheme; Newsom, Carol A. (2010-01-20) Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
Gold, Victor R., William Holladay, “Jeremiah” in The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, Metzger,Bruce M.;Murphy,Roland E., eds. (New York:Oxford University Press) 1994.
Overholt,Thomas W. “Jeremiah” in HarperCollins Bible Commentary Mays, James L. ed.(San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco) 2000.